Power supply has long been a necessary attribute of any home. A properly organized power grid will allow for rational and safe power supply of residential and auxiliary premises and electrical services and electrical maintenance will help you to do this professional and fast.
Entering electricity into the building
The main point of reference for individual wiring can be considered an introductory switchboard with an electric meter and introductory machines. In addition to these mandatory components, switching and protection devices can also be installed.
The type of electrical panel housing is selected depending on the place of its installation. In private households, according to the modern requirements of power supply organizations, an external panel is installed, connected to a standard 220V network or three-phase 0.4 kV. For electrical safety purposes, the introductory board must have anti-vandal design and a high degree of protection against atmospheric influences. In apartment buildings, it is located on the staircase, so the design requirements are greatly simplified.
Distribution boxes and network protection
From the lead-in switchboard, cables are laid to consumers. However, in this case, there may be options. As a rule, several distribution boards are installed in private houses due to the long length of cable lines. In this case, the first level of protection can be installed even in the introductory board. In the subsequent local shields, the already distributed load is protected along different lines. Such a scheme is often implemented in apartments in order to exclude the installation of circuit breakers, RCDs and SPDs in the shield on the staircase.
Cable and load planning
After the installation of the external electrical panel has been completed, we begin to lay the power cable or wire directly to the internal electrical panel, which will become the source of power supply for your home. The difference between private country houses and typical apartments in high-rise buildings is only in the fact that private housing can be much larger in area and will require a more ramified electrical network and a larger number of junction boxes and switches.
Before carrying out the final wiring, it is advisable to draw up a plan for the location of electricity consumers (lighting points, switches and sockets, connection points for kitchen and heating equipment). This will subsequently help to avoid the installation of additional switches and sockets after the final installation of all consumer groups of electricity.
If the house has a backup power line, it must also be connected to the main panel. If there is an additional power source (generator), it is necessary to provide for the possibility of setting switches, and, possibly, automating the switching on of the generator and disconnecting from the mains in the event of a power outage. Today, not only houses, but also apartments can be multi-store. Therefore, floor transit panels are relevant in both cases.
Cable routing options
In most cases, due to aesthetics and safety, a hidden method of cable routing is preferable, but in some rooms this option is not possible. The implementation of cable lines can be carried out according to several schemes:
chipping a monolithic wall and laying wires directly into the wall with output to pre-placed distribution and installation boxes;
laying cables in hollow walls using cable ducts and corrugated pipes and output to special mounting boxes for hollow walls;
hidden wiring using the underfloor cable routing system;
external (external wiring) in wall cable ducts and connection of sockets and switches for external wiring.
The choice of a particular option depends on the personal preferences of the owner and the technical capabilities of the premises.
It is pointless to run a complete cable line to each consumer, however, it is also illogical to place countless junction boxes. As a rule, power outlet lines for powerful consumers go directly from a shield with protective equipment. In difficult cases and the need for splicing lines, you should use terminal blocks and cross-modules with reliable screw connections. At the same time, for a lighting network that does not experience powerful loads, it is rational to use junction boxes in which all cable lines from the switches to the lighting points will be switched. This, perhaps, will complicate the installation to some extent, but will save a significant part of the finances by reducing the total length of the wires.